By Rebecca Connolly
Recording revenue is, in anyone’s mind, seen as a job well done when you complete selling your product or service or receiving a donation for your organization.
But a new revenue-recognition standard for non-public companies is effective for years ending Dec. 31, 2019 and annual periods then after, and business owners and managers must be aware of what this new standard means.
The new revenue-recognition standard, Accounting Standards Codification 605, Revenue Recognition, created a five-step process to determine when you should recognize revenue.
• Step 1: Identify a contract with a customer. This contract can include an invoice, a formal signed contract, and other various forms agreed to upon the purchase of goods or services. Once a contract has been identified, you proceed to step 2.
“Know what you are signing and know, if you are entering into a long-term contract, how to structure it in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.”
• Step 2: Identify the performance obligations (promises) in the contract. Contracts can have one or more performance obligations. An example of one performance obligation is to deliver the 10 office chairs that were ordered by a customer. An example of multiple performance obligations within a contract is a construction contract that requires a house to be built and suitable for living, a driveway to be installed, and a garage to be constructed. The key item here is to know what you are signing and know, if you are entering into a long-term contract, how to structure it in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Then you proceed to step 3.
• Step 3: Determine the transaction price. Transaction price is the amount of consideration the entity expects to be entitled to, in exchange for transferring promised goods or services to a customer, excluding amounts collected on behalf of third parties. This item concerns how much money the entity expects to receive. As one example, if you sell office chairs for $59 a chair, but there is a sale and the chairs are now $45 a chair, then the revenue the entity can expect to receive for the chair at this time is $45 a chair. Elements from step 2 and step 3 are then used in step 4.
• Step 4: Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligation in the contract. If there is only one performance obligation of the office- chair delivery, then no allocation is needed. It gets complicated when you have more than one performance obligation in a contract. The best method is to allocate the price per performance obligation in the contract itself. Continuing the example of the construction of a house, the price could be allocated at $200,000 and the garage and driveway obligation could potentially be allocated at $100,000. An important element here is to be consistent in your application of the price allocations and document your process with the allocation among performance obligations. Once prices are allocated, you can proceed to step 5.
• Step 5: Recognize revenue when (or as) the reporting organization satisfies a performance obligation. Recognizing the revenue in the amount determined in step 4 has become more of a checklist item, as, yes, we have completed the performance obligation, and now the revenue can be recorded. This step is ‘I have delivered the office chairs and have completed the performance obligation with this contract.’
The moral of the new revenue-recognition standard is that the rules are changing, and it is best to look at your contracts and how you record revenue now before your accountant comes in and notes your revenue is overstated by $300,000.
Rebecca Connelly, CPA is a manager for West Springfield-based Burkhart, Pizzanelli, P.C. She is involved in the accounting and consulting aspects of the practice and manages engagements of various size and complexity, including nonprofit and construction companies, manufacturing, and distributors; (413) 734-9040.